James Andrew Smith, Jivraj, Jamil, Wong, Ronnie, Yang, Victor. 30 Years of neurosurgical robots: Review and trends for manipulators and associated navigational systems. Annals of biomedical engineering, 44(4):836-846, 2016.
This review provides an examination of contemporary neurosurgical robots and the developments that led to them. Improvements in localization, microsurgery and minimally invasive surgery have made robotic neurosurgery viable, as seen by the success of platforms such as the CyberKnife and neuromate. Neurosurgical robots can now perform specific surgical tasks such as skull-base drilling and craniotomies, as well as pedicle screw and cochlear electrode insertions. Growth trends in neurosurgical robotics are likely to continue but may be tempered by concerns over recent surgical robot recalls, commercially-driven surgeon training, and studies that show operational costs for surgical robotic procedures are often higher than traditional surgical methods. We point out that addressing performance issues related to navigation-related registration is an active area of research and will aid in improving overall robot neurosurgery performance and associated costs.